Nature's Nature, autism, the mind, and values


Nature's Nature

Why ancient Egyptians valued Deneb and the Northern Cross

By aligning the wing stars of the northern cross (and not Orion) with Giza's pyramids, Cassella (2018i) found (and anyone can find) that:

(A) the wing stars of the Northern Cross (Delta Cygni, Sadr, and Epsilon Cygni) point at a southern circle of triangulation, south of Giza; and Deneb, Sadr, and Albireo point at a northern circle of triangulation; 

(B) on land, the two circles cross each other twice, on the tip of Khafre's Pyramid at the West and at a few meter from the temple to Isis/Sirius on the East, within the southern part of modern Cairo and a base of 14.1 miles between the two crossings; the two crossing are a metaphor for the principle of Ubiquity and Coincidence in quantum computing;

(C) the location of Khufu's and Menkaure's pyramids reflect the land plotting of the southern circle; 

(D) the location of Djedefre's and Khafre's pyramids confirms the northern circle; and

(E) the northern circle also contains Orion's Belt at the East.

The head of Giza's Sphinx and the Lion Constellation represents the classical computing (or the 1st attention) spared in autism; its body, the quantum coherence (or the 2nd attention) impaired in autism; and the whole Sphinx represents the de-coherence of the 3rd Attention. 

By looking at the shared baseline of the two triangulation-circles, Giza's Sphinx leads to four hypotheses:

(a) The points inside the crossing of the two triangulation circles validate the principle that 'an object may exist in two places (the two circles, for example) simultaneously' and the principle that 'two separate objects (the two circles, for example) may share the same space at the same time';

(b) South of the eastern end of the baseline, should lie a temple to Isis (Sirius, Sopdet, Venus);

(c) 1.8 miles up from the eastern end of the baseline, three buried temples (on the right) would stand for the 3 stars of Orion's Belt; and

(d) when a pharaoh died, his spirit and rigid body went from Orion-Osiris-Sah on land to Sopdet-Isis-Venus and crossed the Nile toward the Sphinx; from the Sphinx, his mummy went to his tomb, while his spirit crossed  the Milky Way in reaching the celestial Orion.  

Unveiling the secrets hidden in the mind of autistics, Moses' 'Ark of the Covenant', Leonardo's artistic feats, and Giza's monuments may help us transform into opportunities of growth the dangers of Global Warming, which surpass by far what the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)  has envisioned so far.

The logos heuristics, and the 'Ark of the Covenant'


If the "Ark of the Covenant" in Axum (Ethiopia) is not 'The Ark', it is nonetheless a metaphor (Cassella, 2019) for the 3 steps of problem solving impaired in the autistic brain:

(1)  GUARD OUR MEMORY (Thummim, the Crook, the 1st Attention spared in high-functioning autism, or the classical computing in which 'yes' wins over 'no'):

(2) IMAGINE NEW MEMORIES (Urim, the Flail, the union of 'yes' and 'no', the ambiguity of quantum coherence, or the  2nd attention wronged in autism); and  

(3)  CHOOSE A 'PATH WITH HEART', within the de-coherence of the 3rd Attention.

 Moses sewed the Thummim and Urim crystals on Aaron's ephod and placed it  in the Ark because Egyptian Sages had shown him the secret of the crossing of the Crook and the Flail on Osiris' chest.

That secret is also hidden in the Medieval question, "How many angels (the infinite of Ubiquity) can dance on the tip (the nothingness of Coincidence) of a pin (Unity)?"

Quantum decoherence completes the union of the Crook and the Flail, of the crystals Thummim and Urim, nature's Nature, and the Dance of unity with nothingness and infinity (1/0 = ♾). 

Quantum decoherence may be viewed as part of the 2nd attention or of the 3rd Attention.

Leonardo's 'Natività' and 'Fight for the Standard'


The Dance among unity, infinity, and nothingness  precedes the perception of the beauty of a Masterpiece, a Sacred Text, and of the opportunity to  win with the angels of Ubiquity and Coincidence, placed by Leonardo da Vinci at the top of his 'Nativity' painting. The 'Natività' ('Nativity scene', at the left) is kept in the church of 'Santa Maria dei Canali' at Tortona (AL, Italy). 

Without the cloud, the angels of Ubiquity and Coincidence would stay inside the stable; and without the angels, the cloud would stay outside. Together, the angels and the cloud stay inside and outside at once (Ubiquity) and share the same space at the same time (Coincidence).  Joseph makes the 1st attention, or the Crook; Mary, the 2nd attention. or the Flail; and Jesus, the 3rd Attention, or the union of the Crook and the Flail.

Leonardo also hid the three modes of attention of nature and the human mind in his vanished mural 'Lotta per lo Stendardo' ('Fight for the Standard'), the center piece of the ruined 'Battaglia di Anghiari' ('Battle of Anghiari'). 

Giorgio  Vasari hid the center of the Fight for the Standard  at 7.035 meters below the center of Vasari's Battaglia di Marciano in the Hall of the 500, at Florence's Palazzo Vecchio. Cassella (2017c) found that drilling a hole at 0.915 meters from the floor, on the vertical that comes down from the throat of the warriors dying on the ground of the Battle of Marciano, will uncover the throat of the warrior dying on the ground of the Fight for the Standard. The next section shows how quantum computing defeats classical repetition.


A. Autism and schizophrenia

The legend of the going and returning voyage of Quetzalcoatl

This page aims at showing that autistic children anchored in the memory of an allegedly known reality may grow into an adulthood still hampered by the difficulty to enter quantum coherence, in exploring the infinity tackled by the Mesoamerican demigod Quetzal-coatl (Bird-serpent). Although he goes as 'Coatl-quetzal' from the perception of shared spacetime (on the earth that supports the serpent-coatl) to the sky of madness that welcomes the bird-quetzal, 'Quetzalcoatl' will escape madness. He (or she) will return from the meeting of infinity and nothingness in the Superior Conjunction into the progress of a renewed spacetime attached to the inferior conjunction.

As far as it is known, autism is an irreversible condition, for no cure has been found yet. Furthermore, the percentage of the population included in the autistic spectrum is fast increasing. Besides better diagnostic tools, unknown viruses, and the unwanted effect of some vaccines on some children, one cannot discard the irresponsible release of toxic chemicals in the environment and the degeneration of our ability (quantum computing, learning, Moses' Urim, Zechariah's No'am, or the Aztecs' Nagual) to stand between autistic need (Thummim, classical computing) and schizophrenic chance.

We may include in schizophrenia the people who could explore the edge of insanity when they were children but in early adulthood lose the capacity to leave madness behind in order to return to a renewed shared reality. Quantum de-coherence, or the capacity of Quetzalcoatl for returning to a better self and a better other, is impaired in a variable degree in whoever remains trapped in psychosis

Understanding autism will lead to an understanding of schizophrenia; understanding schizophrenia will lead to an understanding of the psychosis that surrounds it; and understanding psychosis will lead to an understanding of the 'normal' mind. 

The benefits of knowing the cognitive roots of autism

The proposal of a theory (for example, the logos heuristics) that uncovered the cognitive roots of autism and schizophrenia would be a providential happening in preventing the occurrence of both spectra, find a cure, diagnose autism early in life, and apply improved teaching methods very early in development. The research of Antonio Cassella aims at more than preventing the increase of autistic order in babies and psychotic disorders in adults. Grasping the roots of autism and of the schizophrenia at the center of psychosis will allow us to offset the destruction brought by the Four Horsemen of Apocalypse: Terrorism (1), global warming (2), autism (3), and psychosis (4). Besides avoiding destruction, the comprehension of the cause of autism and the cause of schizophrenia may allow us to seek and find a new horizon of social problem-solving, learning, and Progress  for our children. 

The puzzling growth of autism since Kanner and Asperger 

The Mesoamerican Olmecs, Maya, Toltecs, and Mexica/Aztecs believed that the 'bird-serpent' "Quetzal-coatl" had the capacity to leave behind the memory of classical reality (or spacetime),  go (left in the figure above) across madness, into mutually exclusive imaginary worlds (quantum  hyperspace), and return (right) through hyperspace into a renewed  spacetime. Autistics lack the freedom to 'Go', in becoming a "Coatl-quetzal"; and unmedicated schizophrenics lack the freedom to 'Return', in becoming a "Quetzal-coatl." 

Understanding infantile autism will make us all free.  

About six decades ago, Leo Kanner used the term infantile autism to describe the predicament of eleven children who showed three abnormal characteristics: 

· The inability to integrate socially with peers, or autistic aloneness (the cognitive abilities unimpaired or overdeveloped in autism are underlined),

· the desire for sameness, or repetition, and

· islets of above-average abilities in rote memory and the adroit manipulation of intricate form boards. 

About Donald, the first child he had examined in 1938, he wrote, “He could, since the age of two- and one-half years, tell the names of all Presidents and Vice-Presidents . . .  Yet he was unable to carry on an ordinary conversation. He was out of contact with people, while he could handle objects skillfully. His memory was phenomenal. The few times he addressed someone—largely to satisfy his wants—he referred to himself as ‘You’ and to the person as 'I' (pronoun reversal).

One year later, Hans Asperger presented a wider spectrum of children with similar features, showing that not all autistics are gifted with highly functional characteristics. Other peculiarities that Asperger noticed in his patients were:

· infrequency of eye contact

· poverty of facial expressions and gestures, 

· stereotypical movements (repeated hands flapping, jumping, and so on), 

· anomalous language, 

· adherence to their own impulses to the detriment of the demands of their environment, and 

· difficulty for learning from peers, parents, and teachers.

Besides eliminating the subtypes of ‘Autism Spectrum Disorder’ (ASD) (in the like of ‘Asperger’, for example), DSM-V (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) centers autism in two problem-areas:

A. impairments in 3 out of 3 areas of social communication and interaction across contexts (as severe as the total absence of language in many cases); in which, A1 points at poor social initiation and response (for example, lack of joint attention), A2 reflects weakness in nonverbal communication (for example, eye contact), and A3 addresses the deficiency of social awareness, insight, and relationship (for example, lack of a “theory-of-mind” in taking another person’s perspective after age 4 years); 

B. restricted or repetitive patterns of behavior by at least 2 of 4 symptoms; in which, B1 refers to atypical speech or movements (for example, echolalia or pronoun reversal), B2 denotes excessive resistance to change and rigid thinking (for example, overreaction to trivial changes and inability to understand irony and humor), B3 is linked to excessive attachment to objects or circumscribed interests (for example, blankets), and B4 shows hypo- or hyper-reactivity to sensory aspects of the environment (for example, spinning objects). (See a summary of DSM-V observations about autism prepared by L. Carpenter (PhD) in 2013.)

The prevalence of autism and psychosis

Concerning the prevalence of autism, DSM-IV-TR (2000) presented a median of 5 cases per 10,000 individuals, whereas Atlanta’s CDC adheres now to a figure of 1 case of autism in 59 children (or 1.69 %). From this we may infer that there are about 5-million autistic individuals in the United States and at least 80-million autistics in the world. 

Because the elimination of subtypes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-V introduces the possibility of conservative estimates of the number of living autistics, Cassella (2018c)  proposed  that the prevalence of autism (at least 1% in the world) and psychosis (which includes schizophrenia) is growing. The fact that solitary pretend play in DSM-IV (2004) was substituted in DSM-V with shared imaginative play demonstrates that the numerous authors of DSM-V do not master yet the underlying origin of autism. The same can be said about psychosis and the illness at its center: schizophrenia.

As with autism, DSM-V eliminated a few subtypes of schizophrenia (for example, paranoia), leaving the terrain of the schizophrenic to people affected by delusion or hallucinations for more than one month. If one includes schizophrenia (25-60 million), bipolar disorder (60-80 million people), and depression (270-300 million) in the spectrum of psychosis (the inability to keep track of shared reality), then the global prevalence of psychosis (about 5%) becomes at least 5 times the prevalence of autism. 

In 1964, Bernard Rimland showed that the view of shared reality in autism and the distortion of reality in schizophrenia obey opposite domains of cognition, in the same way that sanity of mind opposes insanity. Because most schizophrenics respond positively to dopamine antagonists, whereas no drug can eliminate autism yet, Cassella (2017a) embraced Rimland’s assessment of schizophrenia as a genetic predisposition that is opposite to autism. If schizophrenics (about 40 million)  represent about 10% of psychotics (about 400 million), one in 200 person suffers from schizophrenia, whereas one in 100 persons suffers from ASD. While autism hits our children, schizophrenia hits us from the end of adolescence up to the age of 35 years, clustering around the age of 20 and the age of 30 years.

The following section attempts to show why autism, mental retardation, Down syndrome, schizophrenia, and psychosis are different manifestations of the deterioration of the meeting of two aspects of the normal mind: The classical computing spared in autism and the quantum computing impaired in autism.


B. Autism, Down's syndrome, schizophrenia, and retardation

Unlike Down’s syndrome, autism does not respond to a known abnormality. Although autism might stem from damage to a central and weird facet of our cognition, that spectrum is linked to a variety of etiologies, as happens with epilepsy, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy. In fact, 70 percent of autistic individuals present a variable degree of mental retardation, which is a characteristic autism shares with cerebral palsy and Down’s syndrome, although neither impairment is linked to infantile autism. Furthermore, one third of children with autism is associated with pre- and perinatal abnormalities and the development of seizures in adolescence rather than in infancy (Deykin & MacMahon, 1979). By contrast, nonautistic mental retardation is linked to postnatal complications and to epilepsy in early childhood (Richardson, Koller, Katz, & McLaren, 1980).

The Benefits of Knowing the Cognitive Roots of Autism

The proposal of a theory that uncovered the cognitive roots of autism and schizophrenia would be a providential happening in preventing the occurrence of both spectra, find a cure, diagnose them early in life, and apply improved teaching methods very early in development. Cassella (2018f ) aimed at more than preventing the increase of autistic order and psychotic disorder, since he was convinced that grasping the roots of autism and schizophrenia will allow us to offset the destruction brought by the Four Horsemen of Apocalypse: Terrorism (1), global warming (2), autism (3), and psychosis (4). 

Besides avoiding the degeneration of the mind of leaders, nations, and global society, the comprehension of the cause of autism and the cause of schizophrenia may allow us to seek and find a new horizon of problem-solving, learning, and progress  for our normal children. 

The fact that the cognitive disorder at the basis of autism is not well understood severely limits the methods used to teach autistic children. Current teaching methods are generally fed by behavior-modification techniques derived from operant conditioning, as described by Harvard psychologist B. F. Skinner.

Behavior Modification

Operant conditioning—which considers the existence of the mind a superfluous hypothesis—has originated positive reinforcement techniques that are crucial to acquiring central meanings, habits, rules, and basic skills. Still, educational methods based on this theory cannot teach autistics how to readjust familiar knowledge when context changes abruptly or when the environment presents unusual demands. As a matter of fact, when the problems raised by the vicissitudes of life force us to search for new horizons, behavior modification—used with great success in training the animals that perform in circuses—becomes less effective, ineffective, or counterproductive. 

Since the creativity of autistics is weakened, in an ironic twist, behavior modification may reinforce their autistic tendency to stick to what they know in situations in which familiar knowledge is inadequate. Teaching methods that lean on operant conditioning would work better if they were complemented by an attitude favorable to change or re-creation. Only through creativity can we suspend the validity of “certain,” “legitimate,” repetitive, and ingrained knowledge and habits at the right moment. 

A theory capable of explaining the psychological and neurobiological roots of autistics’ cognitive limitations could enhance teaching methods and help both cognitively impaired and normal children.  A step on the way to such a theory is given by exploring the growth of intelligence in preschoolers and the strengths and weaknesses of autistics.


C. The growth of intelligence in preschoolers

As Cassella wrote  (2000, 2002a, 2018c), by testing normal children in the 1940s, the psychologist Jean Piaget (1983) found  that human intelligence grows in five stages from birth up to the age of 6.5 years (in actual findings, since Piaget adopted an upper limit of 7.5 years): 

A. Before the age of three months, newborns detect that the self is capable of repeating their own movements perfectly

B. before the 4th month, babies learn how to link a perception to the self; 

C. before age 1 year, they learn how to repeat perfectly the known link between two perceptions; 

D. at the age of two years, children can link a perception to a concept (representation) and to the self; and 

E. at the age of 6.5 years, all normal children can link two concepts (meta-representation).

Because Piaget never compared autistic to normal children, he never detected that intelligence grows along two vectors:

  • the perfection of classical computing in the 1st attention; and 
  • the less-than-perfection of quantum computing

Neither did Piaget detect that quantum computing in its turn can be split 

  • in a going embedded in the ambiguity and hope that characterize our courage to face a challenge in the coherence of the 2nd attention and 
  • in the elation (Archimedes' scream 'Eureka') that characterizes our consciousness of being on the road of our return journey, in which quantum de-coherence sustains our smile to others through the 3rd Attention.

It is not easy to conclude if we are on the way of the 2nd attention or on the way of the 3rd Attention. Sublime and dangerous accomplishments accompany the learning linked to quantum computing; Leonardo da Vinci, for example, used the 2nd attention in designing new cannons and sought the 3rd Attention in painting 'Mona Lisa' (now at the Louvre Museum) and the 'Nativity', which enlivens the church of Santa Maria dei Canali at Tortona (AL, Italy).

Mark Johnson (1994) measured the capacity of four-month-old normal babies for shifting their attention ten years before Landry and Bryson (2004) detected that autistics cannot follow normal children in accomplishing that feat. In its turn, John Watson (1994) detected the presence of conditional probability, or less-than-perfect probability, during the first year of life of normal children. 

Watson used a short string in tying the right foot of a sleeping baby to a rattle; and after that, he tied the left foot of another sleeping baby to the same rattle. (The two babies were separated by an opaque curtain.) When the first baby woke up, he started moving his right foot, producing a repetitive sound with probability p = 1 (autistic need). The movement woke up the second baby who also made the rattle sound with p = 1 because the first baby had stopped. Indeed, the first baby was surprised to see that  the rattle moved with p = 0 (schizophrenic chance), for he did nothing to promote the happening. After a while, though, he discovered that he could move the rattle, although he did not have perfect (100%) control of that movement. The second baby made the same discovery, within a dialogue that Watson attached to conditional or less-than-perfect probability (between 1 and 0, or between autism and schizophrenia). 

Watson and the two babies had discovered that a power exists that differs from having or not having total control. Cassella (2018c) attached that power to the quantum computing that guides less-than-perfect control in mediating between the 100% perfection attached to our self and the maddening imperfection we attribute to the people we cannot control 100%.  The Inquisition burned thousand witches  because it is too easy to confuse the opportunities opened up by creative less-than-perfection (0 < p < 1) with the dangers opened up by uncreative imperfection (p = 0). The followers of diabolical dictators make the same mistake.

Autistics cannot deal with problems that challenge our memory of repetitive knowledge,  by crossing the chasm between the known with p = 1 and the unknowable with p = 0. Autistics embrace the known (p = 1) and reject what contradicts it (p = 0), but cannot deal with dilemmas between the two extremes, in the world between 1 and 0, explored by quantum qubits. Their difficulty to deal with less-than-perfection can help us envision a theory about the roots of quantum information processing in the human mind and in the universe: The aim of next section.


D. Weaknesses and strengths of autistics

The Failure of Autistics in False-Belief Tests (Theory of Mind) 

The theory we are searching for needs not be based on speculation, for at present we hold on to a variety of unexplained results brought about by innumerous experiments with autistics in different fields of psychology and neurocognitive science. This sizable array of enigmatic results may become a treasure-trove in the eyes of whoever integrates them in explaining the causal factors they respond to. A coherent theory would have the capacity to predict the outcome of new experiments with autistic subjects, improve educational methods, determine the neurocircuitry damaged in autism, dampen autism and psychosis, and even prevent the destruction of human civilization.

Cassella (2018b) explained the mystery behind the “shift/disengage” protocol (SDP) devised by Landry and Bryson (2004): Autistics matched normal subjects in shifting their local first attention from a group of flashing lights that went off on one side and went on on the opposite side in the “shift” stage. However, autistic subjects did not engage their nonlocal second attention during the “disengagestage, when the lights went on on the opposite wall while the original lights remained on. The nonlocal capacity of nonautistic subjects for looking simultaneously in their minds at opposite sets of lights in the SDP protocol calls for an infinite speed. The performance of autistics in the SDP suggests that they cannot handle tasks based on the capacity for tackling the infinite speed of quantum computing.

In the last 35 years, cognitive scientists have found out that the core problem of the spectrum of anomalous behaviors observed in autistic individuals lies in their inability to pass ‘false-belief’ tests (Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985) (Baron-Cohen, 1989, 1993, 1995). As an example, experimental subjects may be asked to look at two dolls (a boy and a girl) who are playing marbles in a room. The subjects are then shown that the girl-doll places her marbles under a pillow before leaving the room. They also see that the boy-doll moves the marbles to a desk drawer while the girl-doll is away. At this point a researcher asks the experimental subject where the girl-doll (who is about to enter the room) will look for her marbles. Normal children answer that she will look under the pillow, where she left them; and autistics say that she will search for them in the drawer, where the marbles are. 

In 1997, Cassella started valuing the hypothesis that locality and finite speed guide the wrong answers of autistics, whereas nonlocality and infinite speed guide the right answers of nonautistics.

The Success of Autistics in Self-Other-Recognition Tests 

Another crucial piece of knowledge that has contributed to Cassella's view (1997, 2000, 2002a, 2002c, 2011, 2017a, 2018c) of the roots of creativity is autistics’ success in passing two fundamental cognitive tests. One of them is “Zaitchik’s Photo Task.” (Zaitchik, 1990). This test, which measures the capacity to recognize the identity of the other over time, is passed by normal children at the age of four to five years, the same age at which normal children pass false belief. In Zaitchik’s Photo Task, Ernie, a Sesame Street character, takes a picture of his friend Bert lying on a mat. Bert leaves, and Big Bird takes Bert’s place on the mat. Pointing at the developed picture without showing its content, an experimenter asks the subject, “In the picture, who lies on the mat?” Acting in a way seemingly opposite to their behavior in false-belief tests, autistics answer, "Bert," although they see Big Bird lying on the mat. 

In Perner’s (1991) and in Leslie and Roth’s (1993) analogous replications, autistics were about 50 percent more successful with Zaitchik’s Photo-Task than were matched normal controls. Because this test appears to be similar to and as complex as false-belief tasks, the question arises: What is the reason behind autistics’ astounding performance? In his books, Cassella explained that autistics are extremely successful at this task because Zaitchik makes use of a systems dynamic, and a set of cognitive laws that rests not on the need to violate reality, but to honor it. As Einstein showed us through his work on special relativity, an infinite speed would violate reality. Because normal children honor an infinite speed in their minds, they will forever trail matched autistic controls in tests that honor a finite speed, as does Zaitchik.

This proposition is strengthened by the similar performance of autistics in an analogous task, Proper Self (Povinelli, Landau, & Perilloux, 1996), which is passed by normal children at the same age (4-5 years) they pass false belief and Zaitchik’s Photo Task.

According to Povinelli et al., their test measures the capacity for recognizing the identity of the self over time. In the Proper-Self Task, the leading experimenter stands beside a seated subject. A helper takes a picture of the subject and the experimenter while the latter is on the verge of surreptitiously placing a sticker on the subject’s head. In a second picture, the sticker resting on the head of the unsuspecting person is clearly visible. The experimental subject passes the test if he or she takes the sticker off upon seeing one or both pictures. 

At the beginning of Cassella's research (in the summer of 1996), he tested autistic individuals for false belief in the Boston Higashi School at Randolph (MA). He also examined their performance in Proper Self. The guidance of Cassella's Virgil (Dr, Alfonso Caramazza [1994]) was essential in establishing that quantum false belief is mounted on classical Proper Self. His initial experiments (Cassella, 1997) demonstrated that Proper Self and Zaitchik Photo Test draw on the principles of the 1st attention, whereas false-belief  tasks draw on the principles of the 2nd attention. The next section discusses the psychological principles at the basis of the 1st attention in spacetime and of the 2nd attention in hyperspace.


E. Principles of the logos heuristics

Cassella (2002a, 2002c, 2017a) called sequence, 1st attention, or classical computing the cognitive domain (underlined in his printed books) spared in autism.  He also equate classical computing with Zechariah's Hovalim, the Aztec Tonal, the Egyptian Crook, and the crystal Thummim placed by Moses in the Ark of the Covenant.

Cassella's analysis of Zaitchik’s Photo Task and Proper Self leads him to assert that sequence underlies our capacity for preserving the truth. In the particular case of Zaitchik’s photo-task, autistics answer that Bert is the character who lies in the mat pictured in the photo because that is the truth. Unhampered by the doubt that underlies an infinite speed, their cognition can remember the truth more efficiently than do normal children. And they do this because our autistic facet is sustained by real principles.

Cassella  found (2000, 2002a, 2002c, 2017a, 2018c), that the 1st attention obeys ten or more universal principles, which can be clustered around two statements: ‘Nothing can lie in two or more places simultaneously’ (Locality); and, ‘two or more objects cannot share the same space at the same time’ (Impenetrability).

As shown in the previous section, autistic subjects fail false-belief tests, a fact that supports the qualification of “mental blindness” assigned to autistics in the cognitive and the theory-of-mind literature (Wimmer and Perner, 1983). So far, the nature of ‘theory of mind’ has escaped the efforts of the major research centers dedicated to the study of autism. The cognitive domain tapped by theory-of-mind reflects the principles that underly our capacity for lying, which autistics lack. Because the capacity for embracing in hyperspace both the truth and its opposite is supported by an infinite speed, within the ‘logos heuristics’, Cassella has called 'simultaneity', '2nd attention', or 'quantum computing' the infinity and nothingness that underlie the cognitive domain impaired in autism.

In Cassella (2019), quantum computing is equated with the Flail carried by the Egyptian god Osiris, the crystal Urim placed by Moses in the 'Ark of the Covenant', the divine staff No’am mentioned by Zechariah (Books 11-13), and the cognitive domain called Nagual by Don Juan (the Mesoamerican teacher of the anthropologist Carlos Castaneda). As it is done here, Cassella (2018b, 2018c) presented the human neurocircuitry of simultaneity outlined in Cassella (2002a, 2002b, 2002c) and offered some reasons why autistics cannot agree to the violations of reality brought about by fail false-belief tests. 

Cassella found (2000, 2002a, 2002b, 2004, 2018c) that the 2nd attention relies in ten or more principles, which can be concentrated around two statements: ‘One object can lie in two or more places simultaneously’ (Ubiquity); and, ‘Two or more objects can share the same space at the same time’ (Coincidence).

For example, autistics cannot handle pronouns, because pronouns call for the use of the infinite speed and the nothingness that underly quantum computing. Thus, an autistic person will reverse pronouns (using “you” and “your” instead of “I” and “mine”) because choosing the right pronoun implies (Cassella, 2018c) the virtual capacity for being in two places at the same time (Ubiquity) and for sharing the same space with an interlocutor (Coincidence). 

Autism, Dreams, and Freedom

Creativity may be thought of as the life-giving lymph sung in humor and metaphor. Autistics, unfortunately, cannot make fun of space and time by means of the capacity to live in ill-assorted or separate worlds at the same time or to welcome at once opposite worlds in their minds. This fact invites the belief that the secret behind autistics’ difficulty to enrich a spontaneous dialogue is a priceless treasure, that would open new doors in every field of knowledge. We may view that treasure as the possibility to glimpse at the dance of permanence and renovation that hides behind any creative exploit—from writing an absorbing novel to integrating the  world under the spell of gravitation with the  subatomic world posited by quantum physics

The dream and the hope of discovering the roots of creative intelligence in human beings and nature may lead us beyond the present division of knowledge, toward the integration of our creative exploits in any field. But the dream of arriving at the crossroads of literature and science does not perturb the slumber of the characters who manage collective resources, the voters who empower them, the producers trapped by the need of financial return, and the consumers in search of a longer and more comfortable life span. The length of any life span can be multiplied by the increase of global population; and a comfortable life can be multiplied by the increase in the per-capita energy consumption.  Within global warming, the two operations would feed a tragedy more than a comedy; unless we used them to avoid a tragedy.

Similarly, if discovering the nature of our affective-cognitive capacity to understand tragicomedies—which is impaired in autism—were viewed as a critical factor in the advancement of mainstream science and technology, untold resources would be allocated to researching autism. Although that dream has  found dreamers willing to bring it to reality, it has not found yet the support of generous investors. Our most cherished aims are linked to the search of the fountain of youth (living a long life), the enslavement of nonhuman entities, the illusion of comfort, and the invention of sophisticated weapons with which to destroy whoever menaces our ways of life

Ironically, authoritarian and diabolical leaders do not suspect that autistics, by virtue of their idolization of the miracle of permanence in a universe embedded in change, may become our guides in understanding the roots of creativity, democracy, freedom, and even madness

AUTISTICS CANNOT CONCEIVE OF RENEWAL BECAUSE THEY CANNOT CROSS THE UNSETTLING, AMBIGUOUS, AND EXHILARATING FOG IN WHICH THE SAME SIGN MAY REPRESENT DIFFERENT, AND EVEN OPPOSITE, MEANINGS" AT THE SAME TIME," a phenomenon that the logos heuristics links to the marriage of Ubiquity with Coincidence in pretend play, or in the crossing point of any cross.


F. The logos heuristics

Here is a familiar scenario: A little girl, while lying in bed, sings sweetly to her doll. The song she sings is the very song that her mother has sung to her the night before. Thus, while singing, the girl is pretending that she is the doll’s mother and that her doll is herself. This theatrical feat appears to be a piece of cake; and yet acting relies on the use of a mysterious cognitive ability, whose deficiency is the cause of the spectrum of odd behaviors observed in autism.

To an autistic individual who witnesses this precious scene, only one person is lying on the bed: the little girl. For the creative witness, however, three persons “lie” on the bed. In fact, within her pretend play, the little actress is three persons at the same time: her mother, the doll to which she has given life in her imagination, and, naturally, herself.  If the doll is pregnant, then, four persons would lie on the bed of the example. The situation described satisfies for sure the principle of Coincidence: and even the principle of Ubiquity if we consider that the young singer lies here and there or in mismatched worlds simultaneously. Within her imagination, she lies simultaneously in her world, her mother's, the doll's, the world of children, and  the world of adults.  Indeed, she is concurrently a little girl in the present and a mother in the future

The example supports the theory that autism is caused by a deficiency in the cognitive dynamics that invites us to share the same space at the same time with other things and to exist in separate worlds simultaneously (through the mind). In playing pretend, the girl’s artistic side (parallel ways of thinking) nurture her autistic facet (sequential or linear thinking). Through her practice of nurturing her doll, then, over time she will grow into a real mother, the kind of person who can help others grow.

The previous scenario is a good representation of a cognitive heuristics that Cassella has called "logos." The logos heuristics (also expressed by the Greek symbol Λ) presents 'creative intelligence' in human beings and nature as a complementarity between two systems dynamics:  sequence, classical computing, or finiteness) and  simultaneity, quantum computing, or infinity).  Recall that the comparison between the  tests that autistics pass and the tests they fail also led to the complementarity of classical and quantum computing, memory and learning, the Egyptian Crook and  Flail, the Israeli Thummim and Urim, Zechariah's Hovalim and No'am, and the Mexicas' Tonal and Nagual. (Recall also that in Cassella's printed books, he combines underlining and bold to denote the complementarity between classical and quantum computing).  

Sequence and simultaneity can boost each other or destroy each other in an individual or in any natural system. For example, unlike schizophrenics, high-functioning autistics keep alive the memory (or classical computing) of true happenings; but their difficulty to tackle quantum coherence forces them to match unmedicated schizophrenics in their inability to handle the decoherence that protects our return in learning. Alzheimer patients, for example, lose their cerebral memory, and people with dementia lose both, cerebral memory and cerebellar learning, or the two staffs of Zechariah: Hovalim and No'am.  

The rationale behind the logos heuristics is not completely new. In 1964, Rimland asserted that “The study of autism may shed much-needed light on some of the biological bases of intelligence.” He also (ibid. p. 215) reported that “intelligence is the ability to see relationships and meanings by having access to as many alternatives as possible at approximately the same instant of time” (Travis & Hunter, 1928, cited in Goddard, 1946). 

One can add to Rimland's insight that having access at the same time to a multitude of separate options, which compete to explain the meaning of a visible sign, is just the going movement of the paradoxical pendulum of creativity impaired in autism. Per se, the going movement is dangerous. Indeed, the ambiguity caused by the embrace of alternatives at war with each other will lead to madness when it is taken beyond a reasonable limit. 

Therefore, it is essential to connect in time with the return movement of our cognitive journey. That happens when our hungry and beaten self rejects the bread and the temptation to fly presented by the devil (within the 2nd attention) in order to choose an alternative or a combination of alternatives that brings us “back” to a refreshed self and other.  The metamorphosis conducive to renovation (or the 3rd Attention) occurs when we connect existing pieces of knowledge (memory, in the 1st attention of classical computing) in a new spiritual way. (One example is catching the esoteric meaning of our Sacred Text, considering that science alone may lead to self-destruction.) Most people return to reality after listening to the voice of the Devil and not the voice of Gabriel.  Surely enough, the devilish tyrants who wash the brains of their acolytes know how to use pronouns. That fact suggests that the 2nd attention, and not the 3rd Attention, guides  billion decisions in our daily lives.


Although the 3rd attention rises in principle when we learn something new through the 2nd attention and place that repetitive piece of knowledge in the memory bank of the 1st attention guided by sequence, Cassella uses the term "3rd Attention," or place an irregular capital letter in the first letter of a name, to denote our return to the win-win reality that helps others grow.  The kind of de-coherence that results in building a bomb capable of destroying the Earth, the life of an innocent bystander, or any modality of revenge, is not related to the 3rd Attention

As suggested by the logos heuristics (Λ), we need simultaneity (the capacity for lying and learning, which is impaired in autism) to readjust extant knowledge; and we need sequence (the capacity to preserve the truth, which is unimpaired in autism) to recognize the newly arrived at schemes time after time and keep them unchanged until they become obsolete. 

The preservation of sequence, the respect for our capacity to lie, and the potentiation of their union make the dance of change and permanence along the way of Progress only when we smile and grow with whatever we help to smile and grow.

The next section explores the neural circuitry of our capacity to smile and to grow with others.


G. The smile that follows a pun

The figure above depicts the neural circuitry that underlies our capacity to  overcome the ambiguity of polyvalent words, which denote simultaneously opposite or seemingly unrelated, but competing, pieces of information. 

Consider, for example, the paradoxical situation of an Egypt in which English was the language of the commoners and of a ruler, Cleopatra. That queen denied whatever people asked her; and even punished whoever reminded her of her harshness. In that fantastic world, a courtesan bet with his peers that he would incur not punishment in reminding Cleopatra of her nonsocial habit. Truly, when the Queen approached the banks of the Nile in admiring a few lotus flowers, the jester told her, "You are indeed the Queen of denial (The Nile)." 

The cerebellar smile that follows a pun combines opposite schemata stored in the cerebral cortex.

Ito (2011) implied that mossy fibers (MF) may bring the information stored in our cerebral memory into exciting cerebellar 'granule' (Gr) and 'Golgi' (Gl) cells. After that step, the information brought by mossy fibers enlivens the parallel fibers (PF) that cross the 'Purkinje-cell layer' in  reaching the 'Molecular layer'. In that top layer, the axons of parallel fibers embrace the dendrites of Purkinje cells.  

Within quantum neural computing, Cassella (2018b) ascribes to coherence, or nonlocal long-term potentiation (LTP), the fact that one mossy fiber may excite 180,000 Purkinje cells, within an incredible degree of divergence. He also ascribes hypothetically to de-coherence and  nonlocal long-term depression (LTD) the fact that one Purkinje cell may be excited by 180.000 parallel fibers. Within the fantastic convergence attached to LTD, the Purkinje cells that marry invalid solutions are silenced, as Princess Turandot (in the eponymous opera by Puccini) promises death at dawn to the servants that attach a wrong name to a visiting Mongolian prince (Calaf). 

The quantum play of the going Coatl-quetzal in coherence and the returning Quetzal-coatl in de-coherence is also highlighted by Christ's words (Matthew 22:14), "For many are called but few are chosen," by the verse "Blessed by thou amongst women and blessed by the fruit of thy womb Jesus," in the prayer 'Holy Mary', and by Mohammed's return to the Black Stone in Mecca.

Although Ito (2011) wrote that 97% of Purkinje cells are silenced in the process of learning, readers may learn about the mystery of human smile by focusing on the process in which we choose between two pieces of information only, or we accept, without choosing, the expendable copies of opposite schemata produced by the thalamus and taken by mossy fibers from the cerebrum into the cerebellum. 

The latter situation corresponds to the pun expressed in the figure above, in which the same sequence of sound  ("Queen of The Nile," or "Queen of denial") satisfies two competing situations, as happens in the intersection of the horizontal beam and the vertical pole of any cross, or on the top of a mountain, where ascent meets descent.


H. Pele's bicycle kick

The figure above shows how quantum computing in the "being and nonbeing" thought of in the  human cerebellum re-adjusts the movement of an arm to give something to  someone else, or the movement of the leg of a soccer player who aims at placing a goal (Cassella, 2018b). 

Both a pun and the movement that makes fun of the aim of someone else can be attributed to quantum imagination, which  deserves exploration and understanding. Although our autistic facet can smile, it cannot grasp humor, in the same way that autistics cannot tease others.

The teasing act performed by a one-year-old girl in using a stored movement of her arm to give and give not a chocolate to an innocent visitor may help explain how our artistic facet works. In the figure above, our artistic face re-adjusts a schema stored by our autistic facet

Still, it is essential to explain first the difference between a 'forward' and an 'inverse' model, within the mysterious systems dynamics that allows us to match Coatl-Quetzal in going to Venus through quantum coherence

After examining in great depth Ito's thought (2011), Cassella (2013, 2018b) attached the ability to predict, or 'see', the final position or the outcome of a phenomenon that we cannot and  we should not stop to Ito's 'forward model'; and the capacity to produce the set of commands of a scheme that we want to take place and that we can change, to Ito's 'inverse model'. Obviously, we cannot control perfectly the movements of another person (Ito's "forward model"), while we can control what we decide to do (Ito's "Inverse model"). (Autistics experience difficulties to decide what to say and what to do.)

In 1968, for instance, the soccer player Pele made a goal by crossing a pass linked to a forward model with his bicycle kick supported by an inverse model.

As with Pelé, only the best driver would stop in front of a green light, if he saw that a competing driver will approach the next intersection without stopping in front of a red light. Our autistic facet guides our foot in pressing the brake before a red light, or the accelerator before a green light. In the same way, our schizophrenic facet would press the accelerator in front of a red light if alcohol had set us free from the rules imposed by our autistic facet. 

Kindness and not teasing is the solution, although nature pushes us toward teasing others very early in life. 

As with Pelé, a little girl ready to tease others needs to cross a forward model of the arm of a visitor ready to grab the chocolate she offers him through an inverse model, in order to draw back her arm through an opposed inverse model, just before the visitor will take the candy bar away. 

In a similar manner, the driver that faces a green light and travels both in her car and in the car driven by an inebriated person will avoid a collision by crossing two forward models in her mind, reaching the next intersection through the principle of Ubiquity before both cars reach it, coming out unscathed from the virtual collision by virtue of the principle of Coincidence, returning to her car through an infinite speed, and pressing in time the brake pedal.

Within quantum neural computing, we can cross two forward models, two inverse models, or a forward with an inverse model, which shows the supremacy of the cerebellum in all mammals.



I. The supremacy of the cerebellum

Any person on Earth would reach the Wisdom of the 3rd attention if he or she used the principles of quantum computing to win with others. A hypothesis goes that the decision to go by the principles of classical computing or to go by the principles of quantum computing  is handled by the cerebellum and the brainstem. The fact that the cerebrum is divided in two hemispheres implies a central coordination that overcomes its division.

A cerebellar micro-complex, then, should have the power to coordinate both the linkage between two sensations and between two concepts, as implied by our capacity for appreciating the beauty of a work of art, the song "Volare" sung by Domenico Modugno, and the vibration of the diapason shown under the portrait of the Egyptian god Osiris. The fact that some mentally-retarded autistics have an above-normal head and cerebral cortex implies that their diminished ability to link known concepts  obeys a cerebellar damage. 

We could win big with autistic persons by understanding where they stand in relation to Piaget's path of the growth of classical computing in early development,  by devising new teaching methods, and by guiding autistics in crossing safely virtual intersections.

The figure above offers also my view that the act of teasing someone else implies that;

  • beta brain waves reflect the act of sending through the thalamus to the brainstem and the deep cerebellar nuclei copies of the 'schemata' stored in the cerebral cortex ; 
  • alpha brain waves reflect our decision to embrace both a known schema and its crazy negation;
  • delta waves reflect that negation; and, finally, that 
  • theta waves reveal our decision to give the chocolate away to show a visitor that, after all, we listen to the kind spirit of an angel more than to the bad spirit of a devil. In the case of Pelé, that player tried to place a goal with a bicycle kick.

Unlike a kind person, a diabolical torturer would play with a prisoner before abusing him or her. The torturer does that because he or she has the blessing of a diabolical boss; or because there are stupid leaders, stupid politicians, and stupid voters who believe that they can negotiate with a tyrant that will betray anyone, except himself. 

Abusers that cling to power ignore that their betrayal of the actor who tries to teach the social meaning of values to them will be followed in the long term by their fall into the abyss of madness.

Winning big is hidden in the social values that pave the way of the Third Attention, in masterpieces of the Arts, and in Sacred Texts of all religions (Cassella, 2019). 


J. Social Values

Both classical and quantum computing are innate in nature and in nonautistic human beings. This hypothesis agrees with the genetic consequence that there are four times more autistic males than females, who are endowed with better chromosomes. 

High-functioning autistics keep intact at birth the cognitive domain (bottom left in the figure above) matched to the crystal Thummim, sewed by Moses  into the ephod that his brother Aaron kept in the Ark of the Covenant. Thummim can also be equated with the Egyptian Crook worn by the god Osiris and by all pharaohs, up to the suicide of Cleopatra VII before the Roman  Octavius Augustus seized her dead body. The Crook and the Thummim also make the staff Hovalim, faith,  the order and the truth that opposes the disorderly chaos and the falsity that seek to replace them, the Tonal cherished by the Mexica-Aztecs, measurable Unity, and the classical computing that guards the "invariant" schemata stored in the cerebral cortex of humans.

Without the classical computing imposed by the Aztec Tonal, the world of shared reality in a healthy self would vanish: the situation of schizophrenics. After all,  the quantum computing protected by the Aztec Nagual needs a platform from which to fly into the infinity that surrounds any explorer surrounded by doubt. By way of illustration, after stealing from Isaac the blessing that belonged to his twin brother Esau, "Jacob" (or "the deceiver") left his classical Crook-home, on the road of the Egyptian Flail, Urim, and Zechariah's No'am, out of fear of Esau's anger, his own courage, his curiosity, or the advice of his mother Rebecca. 

Before meeting madness, however, Jacob dreamt in Bethel of a ramp that went from the earth (classical computing) to the sky (the unilateral unreality of the mad, also protected by classical computing). God's angels went up and down the ramp, an allusion to the thoughts of the nonautistic person, who  courts coherence in the 2nd attention that goes up from autism to schizophrenia; and de-coherence in the 3rd Attention that goes down from schizophrenia to a renewed autistic facet. 

In Bethel, Jacob understood that there is something worse than abject poverty: the cognitive poverty of the person whom the Devil and the angels of God have abandoned in the visible world; and even worse than that, the quantum spirit of leaders who have been enslaved by devilish cohorts, and condemned to roam the edge of madness before falling in its depths. In  sum, artistic freedom to sin is better than autistic innocence, and autistics' link to reality is better than the link to unreality adored by the mad.  Diabolical tyrants emphasize their capacity to impose order; however, what good would lie in undemocratic order if it will lead in the end to maddening chaos?

Cassella (2018c) posited that Jacob understood at Bethel that he should use not his capacity for tackling the infinity of quantum computing to shorten the growth of others, as tyrants do, but to grow with others, in the pursuit of a win-win outcome. Undemocratic tyrants lack the Reason and the Vision that lead to the solution of a problem. After Bethel, the Force of freedom and goodness led Jacob to a sober learning that sought his redemption by joining his forgiveness to his prudence

In the end, Jacob's compassion and hope tempered his faith into a Reason and a Vision that reached the edge of madness without falling in it. In Penuel, the humility behind nothingness led Jacob to fight a whole night with Gabriel, a metaphor for firming up his realization that he had to talk to God before exercising his Will. Gabriel saw  there  and then that Jacob had left behind his quantum devil, his twisted mind, and his egoism. Consequently, the Face of God twisted one of his legs and changed forever his first name from "Jacob" (or 'the deceiver') to "Israel," or 'he who fights with and is saved by God'. 

After Penuel, Israel embraced a patient will that sought to grow with and to win with others. His charity and piety sought to teach the curious mind of others how to escape the advice of the Devil in seeking beauty, love, elegance, and wisdom. He had left Bethel in poverty, and Penuel in richness. Still, neither poverty nor richness would influence in his Will to 'walk with God'.

The oral tradition behind Genesis and the story of Jacob were devised by Moses. The Prince of prophets hid in the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible) the social values needed to turn the dangers outlined by crucial problems into a new horizon of Progress. Similarly, the Toltec/Mexica Eagle is a metaphor for the return of Quetzalcoatl that will lead our children's children into saving our planet in order to reach the unknown aqueous planet that turns around Proxima Centauri, the nearest star.

Understanding autism, the autistic facet, and the artistic facet of our minds will lead to:

  •  a new Ramayana, in which Sita will fill her husband Rama with compassion
  • a new encounter between Kong Fuzi and Laozi, in which they will unite their points of view;
  • an understanding of Muhammad's night journey;
  • an understanding of the mystery of transubstantiation in the Eucharist;
  • the return of Quetzalcoatl;  
  • the oncoming of an understanding of autism and psychosis;
  • an ad hoc Alliance among powerful nations;
  • our stopping the death of nonhuman species;
  • the reduction of the number of humans on Earth; 
  • a much lessened consumption of hydrocarbons and energy; 
  • the education of terrorists and of the leaders that educate them;
  • the lowering of the temperature of the lower atmosphere; 
  • the cleaning of our oceans; and
  • the smile of future children.


Autism, the logos heuristics, and global warming

As explained in the workshop on climate change (8th), in an article (Cassella, 2017b), and in a book on the subject (Cassella, 2018l), the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) has not considered yet the extreme danger inherent in letting our lower atmosphere heat up more than 2 degrees Celsius.

If the permafrost and the oceans warm up now (within an atmosphere that has become the most powerful green house in 300-million years), the crystals of methane clathrates that lie dormant on the bottom of shallow seas may break their cage, travel to the atmosphere, and cause the rise of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere above 1500 ppm. 

Under those conditions, the equilibrium over the bottom of our oceans between bacteria that feed on sulphur and bacteria that feed on oxygen would be lost; and an environmental avalanche would cause the massive release of hydrogen sulfide, already surfacing in front of the shore of Angola. Our aim to live a longer and more comfortable life will destroy more than Earth's forests and nonhuman species: It will take away the future and the smile of our children's children.

Science alone cannot dispel the extreme dangers that loom upon us. Only by integrating our scientific muscle with the dreams and with the values cherished by our ancestors can we dispel now the dangers that will plague our civilization  before the turn of the 21st century. Although we have little time, we need to try to succeed.

We need to try although some of us are blind; a few are soaked in cynicism; and a few are deeply corrupted. However, we can come out of this quandary in a way that our children's children will bless, even in their dreams. Readers are encouraged to face the difficulties introduced in this website, hope for an eventual comprehension, and insure a better life to our descendants. (Pressing the figure above and the button below will lead to Cassella's writings on global warming.)

References, Referencias, Riferimenti

For references about articles and books by Antonio Cassella, please look at the list provided in the Biography.

American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSMA V, 5th Edition), Washington, D.C.: Author.

 Asperger, H. (1944). Die autistischen, psychopathen in kindersalter. Archiv fur Psychiatrie und nervenkrankheiten, 117, 76-136.

Baron-Cohen, S. (1989). Are autistic children behaviorists? An examination of their mental-physical and appearance-reality distinctions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 579-600.

Baron-Cohen, S. (1993). From attention-goal psychology to belief-desire psychology: The development of a theory of mind and its dysfunction.  In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, and D. J. Cohen, eds., Understanding other minds: Perspectives from autism (pp. 59-82). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press.

Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition, 21, 37-46.

Caramazza, A. (1994). “Parallels and ubiquities in the acquisition and dissolution of language.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 346, 121-127.

Castaneda, C. (1987). The Power of silence: Further lessons from Don Juan. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Deykin, E, Y., & MacMahon, B. (1979). Pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal complications among autistic children. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 134, 860-64.

Feynman, R. P. (1985). The strange theory of light and matter. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Goddard, H. H. (1946). What is Intelligence? Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 51-69.

Ito, M. (2011). The cerebellum: Brain for an implicit self. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Ed.

Johnson, M. H. (1994). Brain Development and Cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250.

Landry, R., & Bryson S. (2004). Impaired disengagement of attention in young children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1115-1122.

Leslie, A., & Roth, D. (1993). What autism teaches us about metarepresentation. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, and D. J. Cohen, eds., Understanding other minds: Perspectives from autism (pp. 83-111). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Perner, J. (1991). Understanding the representational mind. Cambridge, Mss.: MIT Press.

Povinelli, D. J., Landau, K., & Perilloux, H. K. (1996). Self-recognition in young children using delayed versus live feedback: Evidence of a developmental asynchrony. Child Development, 67, 1540-1554.

Richardson, S.A., Koller, H., Katz, M. & McLaren, J. (1980). Seizures and epilepsy in a mentally retarded population over the first 22 years of life. Applied Research in Mental Retardation 1,123-38.

Rimland, B. (1964). Infantile autism: The syndrome and its implications for a neural theory of behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Zaitchik, D. (1990). When representations conflict with reality: The preschooler’s problem with false beliefs and “false” photographs. Cognition, 35, 41-68.

Watson, J. S. (1994). “Detection of the self. The perfect algorithm.” In Self-awareness in animals and humans, edited by S. T. Parker, W. R. Mitchell, and M. L. Boccia, 265-280. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wimmer, H., & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children’s understanding of deception. Cognition, 13, 103-128.