Articles written in English by Antonio Cassella

CASSELLA, A. (2011). Autism and the interplay of  deterministic and quantum information processing in the act of creation. Neuroquantology, 9(2), 271-287. DOI: https//10.14704/nq.2013.11.2.623


Autistics’ preference for invariant knowledge and their rejection of change led the author to hypothesize that the ability to preserve known schemes is a necessary but insufficient element for developing the human capacity to solve problems, uncover new truths, and recreate the world. This proposition can be falsified by examining two derivatives. The first one is that autistics’ ability to pass recognition tests arises from an undivided attention and intention that value the truths one recognizes and reject what contradicts that information—similar to the deterministic stance of classical computational logic. The second derivative is that autistics fail false-belief tests because they lack the divided attention and intention that value simultaneously what one knows and what contradicts that knowledge—which is analogous to the ambiguity that surrounds quantum phenomena. Research on autism may lead to an understanding of the interplay of deterministic and quantum information processing in the act of creation.

KEY WORDS: Autism, deterministic information processing, quantum information processing, creativity

CASSELLA, A. (2013).  A heuristic view of the neurobiological correlates of classical and quantum neural computing from the perspective of autism. Neuroquantology, 11(2), 314-331. DOI: https// 10.14704/nq.2011.9.2.324


Anomalies in the discourse of autisticindividuals and in their performance in ambiguous situations suggest that quantum neural computing, or the second attention, is impaired in autism. When nonautistic individuals face a dilemma, quantum divergence-coherence a) suspends the legitimacy of relevant prototypical knowledge conserved through classical neural computing, or the first attention; b) launches the implicit self into opposite directions; and c) simulates the consequences of clashing variants in the working memory fed by cerebellar microcomplexes. Conversely, quantum convergence-decoherence selects a useful or amusing variant to reduce the consequences of blind trial-and-error in readjusting the knowledge stored in the long-term memory banks of the cerebral cortex. In this article, a view of the psychological roots of quantum coherence-decoherence, injuries detected in autopsied brains of infants and adults with autism, and the application of modern control theory to cerebellar-brainstem microcomplexes lead to a preliminary heuristics on the complementarity of classical and quantum computing in the nonautistic brain. 

KEY WORDS: Heuristic view, neurobiological correlates, quantum neural computing, autism

Cassella, A. (2014a). Psychological roots of social and linguistic deficiencies in autism and the distinction between classical and quantum neural computing. In The comprehensive guide to autism, edited by  Patel V. B., Preedy V. R., & Martin,  C. R.,  p. 1219-1242. New York: Springer.



Verbal autistics may master semantics and syntax but remain blind to pragmatics. They may surpass normal 4-year-olds in neuropsychological tests that require the capacity to link two representations, yet they will trail behind normal 4-month-olds in tests that measure the ability to shift one’s attention. The uneven performance of autistics advocates for three hypotheses (Logos, or Λ): (1) classical neural computing (sequence, or the first attention), which embraces order and rejects chaos, is spared in ASD; (2) autistics’ blindness to the mental states of others owes to their impaired quantum neural computing (simultaneity, or the second attention), which embraces order and chaos simultaneously; and (3) in nonautistic individuals, classical and quantum neural computing may collaborate to adopt new schemata, create spontaneous dialogues, and manage social encounters. Logos may enrich an understanding of the psychological roots of language deficiencies in autism and educational practices that will convey to autistic individuals the freedom to communicate flexibly.

KEY WORDS: Cognitive capacity, Virtual object, Neural computing, Pretend play, Autistic individual

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Cassella, A. (2014b).  Neurobiological correlates of classical and quantum information processing from the perspective of autism. In The comprehensive guide to autism, edited by V. B. Patel, V. R. Preedy, and C. R. Martin, p. 865-890. New Yok: Springer. DOI


The odd performance of autistic individuals in neuropsychological tests and anomalies in their discourse suggest that when nonautistic individuals face a problem, their minds enter quantum coherence: The legitimacy of involved prototypical schemata – guarded by classical neural computing, sequence, or the first attention – is suspended by quantum neural computing, simultaneity, or the second attention; and the consequences of conflicting variants of the schemata on hold are simulated in cerebellar microcomplexes. Within quantum decoherence: The second attention discerns a promising variant (learning); and the first attention will validate the new schema and shield it (memory) against illegitimate change if unfit mistakes are eradicated or amusing mistakes are introduced. In this chapter, psychological aspects of the quantum jump from coherence to decoherence (which autistics cannot follow), damage observed in autopsied brains of autistic subjects, and tertiary research on the cerebellum lead to heuristics on the neurobiological correlates of classical and quantum neural computing.

KEY WORDS: Purkinje Cell, Inverse Model, Virtual Object, Cerebellar Nucleus, Neural Computing.

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CASSELLA, A. (2016). The psychological roots of creativity in messages left by Leonardo da Vinci, Giorgio Vasari, and a Neanderthal troglodyte. Journal of Arts and Humanities, 5(9), 12-28.  DOI


The perfect memory that informs our local autistic facet is insufficient to deal with the unforeseen change that challenges our nonlocal artistic facet. The loss of quantum nonlocality leads autistics to fail tests rooted in overcoming the less-than-perfect ambiguity that elicits our creativity. The psychological structure by which perfect memory and less-than-perfect creativity empower each other remains in darkness. This article broaches the hypothesis that Leonardo da Vinci envisioned the union of local perfection and nonlocal less-than-perfection, and that he hid his insight in the Adoration of the Magi. Leonardo’s knowledge-expressed here as the logos heuristic—guides a psychological interpretation of the smile of Mona Lisa; of the four avatars of the Vitruvian Man; of the recognition and location of Leonardo’s unknown painting Natività; of the exact location of his lost work, Battaglia di Anghiari; and of a 39,000-year-old abstract engraving in Gorham’s cave at Gibraltar. Logos can be used to single out local, nonlocal computing, and their alliance in pursuing a humanistic path to progress.

Key Words: Battaglia di Anghiari, Creativity, Gorham’s Cave, Leonardo da Vinci, local-non-local superposition, theory-of-everything, Natività

Corrigendum: Cassella (2017b; 2018c) has readjusted into a more precise conclusion his hypothesis here about the location  of Leonardo's  Fight for the Standard in the Hall of the 500 at Florence's Palazzo Vecchio

CASSELLA, A. (2017a). Re-directing climate change and terrorism by allying classical with quantum neural computing. ​ International Journal of Social Science Studies, 5(9),94-115.   DOI


Before the turn of the 21st century, terrorism and climate change may cause the breakdown of civilization. The cause of this advancing upheaval is the disparity between scientific ascent and social descent. This paper explores the social values hidden in sacred texts and artistic masterpieces through a view of an impaired capacity for renewing familiar reality in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), as well as an impaired ability to preserve shared beliefs in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). The author posits that we will overcome climate change and terrorism if we join our capacity for renovating and preserving shared knowledge to a humanistic use of science and technology.

Key Words: Autism, classical computing, quantum computing, social intelligence, global warming, terrorism

CASSELLA, A. (2017b). Freeing Leonardo da Vinci’s "Fight-for-the-Standard" in the Hall of the Five Hundred at Florence’s Palazzo Vecchio. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 5(10), 01-16.  DOI


In June 2017, the author wrote an article in the International Journal of Social Science Studies in which he hypothesized that the Hall of the Five Hundred at Florence’s Palazzo Vecchio has been protecting the central piece of Leonardo da Vinci’s mural Battle of Anghiari: The Fight for the Standard (La lotta per lo stendardo) under Giorgio Vasari’s painting Battle of Marciano for 512 years now. On the evening of August 10, 2017, the author read a veiled message left by Vasari: The vertical line that passes through the center of the Battle of Marciano also passes through the center of the Fight for the Standard. On the evening of August 15, the author read a second secret message left by Vasari: The bottom of Leonardo’s Battle of Anghiari aligns with the floor of the Hall of the Five Hundred. Beyond previous hypotheses, the author envisions here that, after drilling a 1/2-inch hole at 0.915 meters from the floor, on the vertical line that leaves the virtual larynx of the screaming supine soldier in the Battle of Marciano, a laparoscope will point at the virtual larynx of the yelling prostrate soldier in the Fight for the Standard. Our wild assault against the wild and against humanistic intelligence is unsustainable. From a humanistic standpoint, the quantum-computing search to see again the classical-computing conflict attached to the Fight for the Standard will lead to a global Renaissance: The union of ancient knowledge about social values with modern scientific and technological skills will dispel global warming and fundamentalist-driven terrorism, while freeing our descendants to explore the cosmos in the next 7000 years.

Keyworkds: Classical computing, quantum computing, social values, Humanism, Renaissance

CASSELLA, A. (2018a). A psychological view of complex numbers through classical and quantum computing. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 6(1), 66-81.  DOI


This article explores a psychological view of zero and complex numbers under the embrace of classical with quantum computing. At first, the author broaches classical computing, after-the-fact learning, and the perfect finiteness of the first attention spared in high-functioning autistics. Secondly, he deals with quantum computing, before-the-fact learning, and the less-than-perfect infinity of the second attention impaired in the autistic spectrum before the age of three years. The author emphasizes that quantum computing in the second step agrees with quantum coherence, the angle Greek Pi in radians, Euler’s Identity (ei + 1 = 0), and the exploration of schizophrenic interpretations with a probability of existence equivalent to algebraic zero. Thirdly, this article shows that the alliance of classical with quantum computing, or of the first with the second attention, allows the atoned self to reach transcendental zero, quantum decoherence, and a renovated home in the arms of the Third Attention. In turn, the renewal brought by the Third Attention can be linked to the angle twice Greek Pi (, or Tau), the “Tau” Identity (ei -1 = 0), the union of real with imaginary numbers in complex numbers, and the proposition by Pythagoras that “all is number.”

Keywords: Algebraic zero, autism, classical computing, complex numbers, finiteness, infinity, quantum computing, schizophrenia, transcendental zero

CASSELLA, A. (2018b). Exploring the social link between cerebral and cerebellar neural ensembles through a falsifiable psychological heuristics. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 6(2), 69-93.  DOI ​


This article employs the logos psychological heuristics in proposing that the organization of the universe, subatomic ensembles, and the humane brain sustains the journey of the Mesoamerican demigod Quetzalcoatl: In the quantum hyperspace that the second attention hides in our 5000 cerebellar microcomplexes, A) quantum coherence helps the going “coatl-quetzal” join the legitimacy of the autistic “coatl-serpent,” guarded by the first attention in the classical spacetime of about 2 000 000 cortical columns, to the illegitimacy of the schizophrenic “quetzal-bird” lodged in the cerebellar cortex, and B) quantum decoherence helps “quetzal-coatl” return from schizophrenia to autism with a new piece of knowledge. The social link that harmonizes the first with the second attention, spacetime with hyperspace, and classical with quantum computing makes the return of Quetzalcoatl and the Third Attention. In cerebellar microcomplexes, the Third Attention ties: the certainty conveyed by mossy fibers from the cerebrum to doubt in the long-term potentiation spread by parallel fibers; the coherence-divergence of long-term potentiation, to the decoherence-convergence of long-term depression in the Purkinje cells that grasp a pun; and the excitement of chosen Purkinje cells in nonlocal hyperspace, to the inhibition of the deep nuclei that induce laughing in local spacetime.

Keywords: autism, classical computing, cortical columns, locality, nonlocality, quantum computing, cerebellar microcomplexes, cerebellar long-term potentiation, schizophrenia, cerebellar long-term depression, humor, progress

CASSELLA, A. (2018c). Exploring the Sphinx and the Great Pyramid through the logos heuristics. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 6(9), 11-30.  DOI


The author describes a triangulation in ancient Egypt: the crossing of a 22.5-mile (diameter) northern circle with an 18-mile southern circle around a shared baseline, which goes eastward 14.1 miles from the vertex of Khafre’s Pyramid in Giza. He hypothesizes that in the 26th century before the Common Era, Pharaoh Khufu (Khafre’s father) leaned on that triangulation to freeze in stone a master plan, in which the first step was replacing with hope the fear of Egyptians for the monumental catlike goddess that preceded by 65 centuries Giza’s Sphinx. Khufu re-sculpted the head of the eastward-looking lioness into the head of the Pharaoh-Guardian of Upper and Lower Egypt. In so doing, the subluminal speed of the first attention, memory-brotherhood in classical computing, and the Sphinx’s head joined the superluminal speed of the second attention, hope-creativity in quantum computing, and its body. The Sphinx and the Great Pyramid that followed its transfiguration point at the union of the first and the second attention into the Third Attention. As a reflection of Khufu’s master plan and the Third Attention, the logos heuristics connects here Egyptian monuments with the roots of nature, the complex plane, global cooling, autism, madness, open discourse, brainwaves, mysticism, music, Leonardo’s art, meditation, the return of the Mesoamerican demigod Quetzalcoatl, motherly love, and progress.

Keywords: Sphinx, Great Pyramid, nature’s nature, brotherhood, hope, progress